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Estonia Geography

Estonia is located in northeastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Russia. Estonia shares boundaries with the Baltic Sea on the north and west, Russia on the east, and Latvia on the south. Estonia's land boundaries total 633 km. Its coastline is 3,794 km. Estonia's capital city, Tallinn, is located in the northern part of the coast.

Estonia is a flat country covering 45,226 km². Estonia has a long, shallow coastline (1,393 km) along the Baltic Sea, with 1,520 islands dotting the shore. The two largest islands are Saaremaa (literally, island land), at 2,673 km², and Hiiumaa, at 989 km². The two islands are favourite Estonian vacation spots. The country's highest point, Suur Munamägi (Egg Mountain), is in the hilly southeast and reaches 318 mmabove sea level. Estonia is covered by about 18,000 km² of forest. Arable land amounts to about 9,260 km². Meadows cover about 2,520 km², and pastureland covers about 1,810 km².

There are more than 1,400 natural and artificial lakes in Estonia. The largest of them, Lake Peipus (3,555 km²), forms much of the border between Estonia and Russia. Located in central Estonia, Võrtsjärv is the second-largest lake (270 km²). The Narva and Emajõgi are among the most important of the country's many rivers.

A small, recent cluster of meteorite craters, the largest of which is called Kaali are found near Saaremaa, Estonia. It is thought that the impact was witnessed by the Iron Age inhabitants of the area.

The proximity of the Baltic Sea influences the coastal climate. At the most western point, Vilsandi Saar, the mean temperature is 6°C (42.8°F). At the country's most eastern points, the mean temperature is between 4.2 and 4.5°C (36 to 40°F). Rainfall averages 50 cm (20 in) on the coast. Inland, rainfall averages 70 cm (28 in). Rainfall is heaviest during the summer and lightest in the spring.


Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates
59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references

total: 45,228 sq km
land: 42,388 sq km
water: 2,840 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Area - comparative
slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

Land boundaries
total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 343 km, Russia 290 km

3,794 km

Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighbouring states

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