Estonia's railroad has a total of 919 km of track, all common carrier railway lines, not including industrial lines in 2008. Tallinn, Haapsalu, Pärnu, Tartu, and Narva are provided rail access to Russia, Latvia, and the Baltic Sea. In order to overcome problems in rolling stock shortages and load fluctuations, a second line of tracks is being laid along the Tallinn-Narva route.
Roadways in 2005 totalled 57,016 km, of which 12,926 km are paved, including 99 km of expressways. Motor vehicles dominate domestic freight transportation, carrying nearly 75% of all dispatched goods.
The Baltic Sea (with the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga) provides Estonia with its primary access to international markets. The principal maritime ports are Tallinn and Pärnu. The merchant fleet had 29 vessels of at least 1,000 GRT in 2008. Sea transportation has increased especially since the completion of Tallinn's new harbour and the acquisition of high capacity vessels. Ships carry grain from North America and also serve West African cargo routes. In 1990, a ferry service opened between Tallinn and Stockholm. During one of these commutes in September 1994, the ferry Estonia sank off the coast of Finland, resulting in about 900 deaths. The tragedy brought international attention to the safety design of roll-on/roll-off ferries in use worldwide.
There were an estimated 19 airports in 2009, 13 of which had paved runways. The principal airport at Tallinn has direct air links to Helsinki and Stockholm. Estonian Air is the principal international airline. In 2001, 278,000 passengers were carried on scheduled domestic and international airline flights.
Airports - with paved runways
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2009)
Airports - with unpaved runways
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 3 (2009)
gas 859 km (2008)
total: 919 km
broad gauge: 919 km 1.520 m/1.524-m gauge (131 km electrified) (2008)
total: 57,016 km
paved: 12,926 km (includes 99 km of expressways)
unpaved: 44,090 km (2005)
320 km (2008)
by type: cargo 5, passenger/cargo 21, petroleum tanker 2, chemical tanker 1
foreign-owned: 4 (Denmark 1, Germany 1, Norway 2)
registered in other countries: 85 (Antigua and Barbuda 23, Belize 6, Cyprus 5, Dominica 7, Finland 2, Latvia 2, Liberia 1, Malta 11, Norway 1, Panama 5, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 16, Sweden 2, Vanuatu 1) (2008)
Ports and terminals
Kuivastu, Kunda, Muuga, Tallinn, Virtsu